The y chromosome has many characteristics that make it favorable for investigating lineage almost all of the y chromosome consists of non-recombining regions and. We study the major levels of y-chromosome haplogroup variation in 15 sudanese populations by typing major y-haplogroups in 445 unrelated males representing the three linguistic families in sudan. To characterize the massim genetically, and to evaluate the influence of the kula ring on patterns of human genetic variation, we analyzed paternally inherited y-chromosome (nry) and maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) dna polymorphisms in 400 individuals from this region.
Papers 3 add social profiles population genetic diversity in the peruvian central andes using data from the mtdna first hypervariable region and y-chromosome short tandem repeats among 17 newly sampled populations and 15 published samples andes, peru, south america, archaeology, anthropology, human y chromosome variation, and 4 more. Underhill et al, new phylogenetic relationships for y-chromosome haplogroup i: reappraising its phylogeography and prehistory in rethinking the human evolution, mellars p, boyle k, bar-yosef o, stringer c, eds mcdonald institute for archaeological research, cambridge, uk, pp 33-42, 2007b. An older generation of anthropologists always accepted joseph greenberg’s classification of niger-congo languages and his theory of the origin of bantu from the cameroon highlands in west africa, which he first advanced in 1964 in an obscure collection of papers (greenberg, joseph 1964.
Antropologists and the y-chromosome variation - y-chromosome variation other genetic markers anthropologists can use to track the potential migration history of indigenous people in the americas are the uniparentally inherited genetic materal: y chromosomes and mitochondrial dna. To use either mtdna or y chromosome material in exploring the question of historical population movements are those of aquadro and greenberg (1983), johnson, wallace, ferris, rattazzi, and cavalli-sforza (1983), and salzano (1982. Summary – molecular anthropology is a relatively young field of research in fact, less than 50 years in fact, less than 50 years have passed since the symposium ‘’classification and human evolution’’ (1962, burg wartenstein, austria). The human y-chromosome has been a sore point among secular scientists in recent years because of its many anti-evolutionary surprises adding to the darwinian grief, is yet one more shocking y-chromosome study that more clearly illustrates the boundaries of human genetic diversity. Molecular anthropology is a field of anthropology in which molecular analysis is used to determine evolutionary links between ancient and modern human populations, as well as between contemporary species.
The y-chromosome data do suggest that the kurdish group in georgia was founded by kurmanji speakers from turkey, although the presence of haplogroups p1 and j2 are at unusually high frequencies in the georgian kurds, which is an indication of genetic drift, making conclusions based on the y-chromosome suspect. This comment considers a paper by c winters recently published in advances in anthropology, as well as some of his related papers, concerning the “origin of haplogroup r1 in africa”, “neanderthals originated in africa”, “neanderthals spread from morocco to east africa”, “the cro-magnon people were probably bushman/khoisan”, and other inventions which do not belong to this journal. The power of y chromosome markers for testing hypotheses of modern human origins lies in the specific qualities of the male sex chromosome—nonrecombination, low mutation rate, and a high sensitivity to population events such as migrations (1,3–5. We have typed 275 men from five populations in algeria, tunisia, and egypt with a set of 119 binary markers and 15 microsatellites from the y chromosome, and we have analyzed the results together with published data from moroccan populations. The association for x and y chromosome variations (axys) is dedicated to addressing the needs of those affected by one or more extra x and/or y chromosomes we are focused on sharing knowledge, offering support, and initiating action to help improve lives of individuals and families.
This expanded study of mtdna and y-chromosome variation in the caucasus extends previous results (nasidze et al 2001, 2003) to increase the accuracy of measurements of genetic diversity among populations, it is desirable to increase the number of populations rather than the number of individuals per population ( nei, 1978 pons & petit, 1995 . -during meiosis 1 homologous pairs of chromosomes form a tetrad and crossing over occurs (swapping dna) which adds genetic variation, this results in 2 diploid cells, then -during meiosis 2 (dna doesn't divide again) the sister chromatids of each chromosome are separated into 1 of 4 genetically different cells. Unbelievable y chromosome differences between humans and chimpanzees 14 jan 2010 holy crap indeed, at 6 million years of separation, the difference in msy gene content in chimpanzee and human is more comparable to the difference in autosomal gene content in chicken and human, at 310 million years of separation. In human genetics, y haplogroup e-m123 is a y-chromosome haplogroup, and defined by the single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) mutation m123 like its closest relatives within the larger e-m215 haplogroup, it is found in both eurasia and africa.
Molecular anthropologists have exploited this knowledge in an attempt to understand the history and evolutionary relationships of contemporary populations by performing a systematic survey of y-chromosome dna sequence variation. Mitochondrial dna and y-chromosome variation in the caucasus we have analyzed mtdna hvi sequences and y chromosome haplogroups based on 11 binary markers in 371 individuals, from 11 populations in the caucasus and the neighbouring countries of turkey and iran. Y chromosome: the y chromosome is the chromosome that makes a person a male and can be passed by a male only to his sons it differs from all other chromosomes that the majority of the chromosome is unique and does not recombine during meiosis (see nry or non-combining y. Employ all variation data found within representative members of all known clades this is powerful information that can help answer crucial questions regarding human origins carter et al y chromosome noah and mitochondrial eve 2018 icc 135 figure 1.
So they compared the genetic variation among 40 independent loci on the x chromosome and autosomes in 90 individuals from six different populations 20 loci on the x chromosome and 20 on the autosomes were picked from non-coding regions of the genome. A more detailed analysis of y chromosome structure and genes can be found in papers by page and colleagues 52,58,71 and reviewed by graves 72 during meiosis, homologous autosomes (one from the father and one from the mother) align with each other and can undergo recombination events, that is the swapping of genes between the two parent. The random assortment of chromosomes in cells during the first meiotic division can result in millions of genetically different gametes crossover (exchange of pieces of maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes, or recombination) occurs during the reduction division, further increasing variability. Y chromosome abstract molecular anthropology - the study of human genetic polymorphisms - is fast and ever-growing branch of anthropology that holds a great promise for both past and future.